Infertility is usually defined as the inability to get pregnant even after trying to conceive for at least 12 months. There are many factors that can cause infertility and secondary infertility, but we cannot conclude that it is only because of abortion.
Here are the major factors that can cause infertility after having an abortion:
Damage to the fetal tissue:
If it is a first-trimester abortion, which is also called “incomplete abortion” leaves some fetal tissues in the uterus. This is not the case with each first-trimester abortion. Unfortunately, some abortions end with such situations. These leftover fetal tissues can lead to infection thus causing permanent damage to fetal organs. This finally can lead to sterility or miscarriage of future pregnancies.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID):
Following an abortion, most women are at higher risk of developing Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), which is a major risk factor for fertility. PID is the inflammation of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. When any instrument is used on the cervix, for example during a D&C procedure and in this D&C can cause a great spread of these organisms and thus increasing the risk of PID.
Sometimes, it is required to perform multiple D&C procedures to remove the fetal leftovers. During this process, it may cause some scarring to the cervix or inside the uterus. Dilation of the cervix is the necessary step during the abortion, which can weaken it. It also affects the ability of an embryo to implant into the cervix to support a pregnancy.
This is most common in highly educated women, as they want to settle well in their careers, like paying student loans or purchasing a house. These women usually use abortion as a back up in case of any failure to contraceptive. Though abortion may or may not cause side effects, these women simply find that the optimum time for conceiving has come and gone without even realizing it.
The suction tube is used to perforate the uterus and larger blood vessel or intestine. If the latter happens, surgery may be required. During some instances, this surgery can lead to infertility. Rarely this may also result in uterine perforation.
Second or third-trimester abortion:
Usually, 90% of abortions are conducted during the first trimester. If the procedure is performed during the second or third trimester, it needs a material called laminaria for the dilation of the cervix. This is performed to make the cervical passage large in order to allow the suction tube to be easily inserted. There is a chance that Laminaria could weaken the cervix and possibly cause infertility.
The final thing to say is, selecting a competent physician and monitoring the body’s temperature thoroughly after the procedure can greatly reduce the chances of showing infertility signs after abortion.